The Novgorod child (also the Novgorod Kremlin) is a fortress of Veliky Novgorod. Detinets is located on the left bank of the Volkhov River. The first mention of it in chronicles dates back to 1044. It is an architectural monument of federal significance, protected by the state. Novgorodsky Detinets as part of the historical center of Veliky Novgorod is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The northern part of modern Detinets, which is a territory formed by the Volkhov tributary with two branches, which was divided into two sections with an insular position. G.M.Stender assumed that the very first fortress occupied the middle part of modern Detinets between the Vladimir and Prechistenskaya towers (that is, the central island). According to V.L. Yanin, the oldest Detinets was located in the northwestern part of the modern Kremlin in the Vladychny Dvor area.
Detinets stands on a hill located above the Volkhov level at a height of 10 m. It has the shape of an irregular oval, stretched from south to north and somewhat concave from the coastal side. The outer perimeter of its walls is 1487 m, the maximum length from north to south is 565 m, width from west to east is 220 m. The total area inside the walls is 12.1 hectares.
Walls and towers of Detinets
The walls are built of stone and brick and mortar. Its thickness is 1-2.5 bricks. The masonry is composed of limestone and cobblestone. The thickness of the fortress walls in different parts is not the same – from 3.6 to 6.5 m. The height ranges from 8 to 15 m. A distinctive feature of Novgorod Detinets was the construction of gate churches. In the construction of the gate churches of Detinets, the main role belonged to the Novgorod archbishops, and the princes no longer participated in the construction. Currently, most of the walls, restored in 1950-1960. under the leadership of A.V. Vorobyov, has the appearance of the 15th century.
Not all the names of the towers accepted today are historical. The names “Dvortsovaya”, “Knyazhaya”, “Kokuy”, “Metropolitan” were introduced by the authors of local history literature at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. (in the materials of the 17th-18th centuries they did not have stable names). Inside, each tower was divided into five or six tiers. The tiers of the towers were connected by wooden staircases. Each of the towers had exits to the battle course of the fortress wall. The lower tiers could be used to store ammunition. The towers, in addition, were equipped with devices for lifting guns and ammunition.
The view from the Kokuy tower of the Knyazhaya, Spasskaya and Dvortsovaya towers and the walls of the Novgorod Detinets are depicted on Russian banknotes in denominations of 5,000 rubles of the 1995 model (inactive) and the denomination of 5 rubles of the 1997 model (valid, but actually withdrawn from circulation). The architectural panorama of the Novgorod Kremlin framed by a stylized arch is depicted on a 200-ruble silver coin, sample of 2009.
Also in Russia, postage stamps were issued in honor of the Novgorod Kremlin.